OTN – Lesson 12 – Detailed Discussion of SNC/N Monitoring (Protection Switching)

This blog post presents a video that describes (in detail) SNC/N (Subnetwork Circuit Group – Non-Intrusive) Monitoring for Protection Switching.

Lesson 12 – Video 6 – Detailed Discussion of SNC/N (Subnetwork Circuit – Non-Intrusive) Monitoring for Protection Switching

This blog post contains a video that presents a detailed discussion of SNC/N (Subnetwork Circuit – Non-Intrusive Monitoring, at the ODU Layer.

In particular, this video will discuss the following topics:

  • A Detailed Review of SNC/Ne (Subnetwork Circuit Protection/Non-Intrusive End-to-End) Monitoring, and
  • A Detailed Review of SNC/Ns (Subnetwork Circuit Protection/Non-Intrusive Sublayer) Monitoring.
  • This shows example locations/conditions of where we would use SNC/Ne or SNC/Ns Monitoring and why we would use this form of monitoring.
  • This video also highlights the similarities and differences between SNC/Ne and SNC/Ns Monitoring.

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OTN – Lesson 12 – Detailed Discussion of CL-SNCG/I Monitoring (Protection Switching)

This blog post presents a video that describes (in detail) CL-SNCG/I (Compound Links – Subnetwork Circuit Group – Inherent) Monitoring for Protection Switching.

This blog post contains a video that presents a detailed discussion of CL-SNCG/I Monitoring, at the ODU layer.

In particular, this video will discuss the following topics:

  • A Quick Review of the SNC/I Monitoring at the ODU Layer
    • A Single ODUj Tributary is the Normal Traffic Signal
    • How CI_SSF and CI_SSD initiate Protection Switching
  • How to perform CL-SNCG/I Monitoring at the ODU Layer
    • What Circuitry (Atomic Functions) that we should use
    • What defects to monitor
    • Which is the Normal Traffic Signal when doing CL-SNCG/I Monitoring at the ODU Layer.
    • What happens when we declare an ODUk Server-Layer service-affecting defects (such as dAIS, dOCI, dLCK, dTIM).
    • Additionally, what happens when we declare the PM-dDEG (ODU-Layer Signal Degrade) defect?
    • How does protection-switching work?
  • How is CL-SNCG/I Monitoring (for Protection-Switching) different from SNC/I Monitoring for Protection-Switching.
    • PI-TSF/PI-TSD versus CI_SSF[n]/CI_SSD[n]
    • Multiple ODUj Tributary Signals is the Normal Traffic Signal
    • dPLM, dLOOMFI, dMSIM[n] and dLOFLOM[n] do not cause Protection-Switching when doing CL-SNCG/I Monitoring.

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OTN – Lesson 12 – Detailed Discussion of SNC/I Monitoring (Protection Switching)

This blog post presents a video that describes (in detail) SNC/I (Subnetwork Circuit – Inherent) Monitoring for Protection Switching.

Lesson 12 – Video 4 – Detailed Discussion of SNC/I (Subnetwork Circuit – Inherent) Monitoring for Protection Switching

This blog post contains a video that presents a detailed discussion of SNC/I Monitoring, both at the OTU and ODU layers.

In particular, this video will discuss the following topics:

  • How to perform SNC/I Monitoring at the OTU Layer
    • What Circuitry (Atomic Functions) that we should use
    • What defects to monitor
    • Which is the Normal Traffic Signal when doing SNC/I Monitoring at the OTU Layer.
    • What happens when we declare an OTU Layer Service-Affecting defect (such as dLOS, dLOF, dLOM, dLOL, dLOFLOM, dLOR, dAIS and dTIM)?
    • What happens when we declare the SM-dDEG (OTU-layer Signal Degrade) defect?
    • How does protection-switching work?
  • How to perform SNC/I Monitoring at the ODU Layer
    • What Circuitry (Atomic Functions) that we should use
    • What defects to monitor
    • Which is the Normal Traffic Signal when doing SNC/I Monitoring at the ODU Layer.
    • What happens when we declare an ODUk Server-Layer service-affecting defects (such as dAIS, dOCI, dLCK, dTIM, dLOOFI and dPLM)?
    • What happens when we declare ODUj Tributary-Layer service-affecting defects (such as dLOFLOM and dMSIM)
    • Additionally, what happens when we declare the PM-dDEG (ODU-layer Signal Degrade) defect?
    • How does protection-switching work?

Check Out the Video Below

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OTN – Lesson 12 – Introduction to SNCP (Subnetwork Connection Protection)

This blog post introduces the concept of SNCP (Subnetwork Circuit Protection) Switching. This post also briefling introduction SNCP Monitoring schemes such as SNC/I, CL-SNCG/I, SNC/Ne, SNC/Ns and SNC/S.

Lesson 12 – Video 3 – Introduction to SNCP (Subnetwork Circuit Protection) Switching

This blog post contains a video that covers the introductory part of Subnetwork Circuit Protection switching.

In particular, this video will discuss the following topics:

  • Introduction to the concept of Subnetwork Circuit Protection (SNCP)-Switching
    • How is SNCP different from Trail Protection Switching
  • Introduction to the following forms of SNCP Monitoring:
  • SNC/I – Subnetwork Circuit/Inherent Monitoring
  • CL-SNCG/I – Compound Link – Subnetwork Circuit Group/Inherent Monitoring
  • SNC/N – Subnetwork Circuit/Non-Intrusive Monitoring
    • SNC/Ne – Subnetwork Circuit/Non-Intrusive (End-to-End) Monitoring
    • SNC/Ns – Subnetwork Circuit/Non-Intrusive (Sublayer) Monitoring
  • SNC/S – Subnetwork Circuit/Sublayer Monitoring

Check Out the Video Below

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OTN – Lesson 12 – Introduction to Linear Protection Switching – Part TWO

This blog post contains a Video that serves as the 2nd Introductory Video to Linear Protection-Switching. This video covers Hold-Off Timers, Wait-to-Restore Timers and reviews Trail Protection.

Lesson 12 – Video 2 – Introduction to Linear Protection Switching – Part TWO

This blog post contains a video that covers the second part of our Introduction to Linear Protection-Switching.

In particular, this video discusses the following topics:

  • Hold-Off Timers – What are They and How are They Useful in a Protection-Switching Design?
  • Wait-to-Restore (WTR) Timers – What are WTR Timers, and why do We Use them?
  • A Review of Trail Protection

Check Out the Video Below

Continue reading “OTN – Lesson 12 – Introduction to Linear Protection Switching – Part TWO”

OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring Multi-Administrative Domain Defect Analysis – Part TWO

This blog post contains the second of two videos that analyzes how the Multi-Administrative Domain uses Tandem Connection Monitoring to respond to service-affecting defects within an ODU signal passing through it.

Lesson 11 – Video 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM) Multi-Administrative Domain Defect Analysis – Part TWO

This blog post contains a video covering the second (and final) part of the Multi-Administrative Domain Walk-Through when defects are occuring.

In particular, this video discusses how the Multi-Administrative Domain will respond to the presence of defects.

During this video, we are going to analyze the Multi-Administrative Domain’s response to the following two cases.

Case 2 – Whenever a Service-Affecting defect occurs within Serving Operator Domain – Operator B, and

Case 3 – Whenever a Service-Affecting defect occurs within the Protect Domain.

NOTE: We analyzed Case 1 (Service-Affecting defect occurs within the ODU signal, but outside of any of the administrative regions) in the previous video.

As we analyze the Multi-Administrative Domain’s response to these defects (for Cases 2 and 3), we will cover the following topics:

  • What exactly occurs within an ODU signal that experiences a service-affecting defect?
  • How do ODU-layer, ODUT-layer and OTU-layer circuitry respond to such defects?
  • How do the circuitry within each of these Administrative Domains respond to the service-affecting defects, associated with Cases 2 and 3?
  • What does the Path Terminating Equipment (at the remote-terminal) do in response to these service-affecting defects?

This video will close out our discussion of Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring.

Check Out the Video Below.

Continue reading “OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring Multi-Administrative Domain Defect Analysis – Part TWO”

OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring Multi-Administrative Domain Defect Analysis – Part ONE

This blog post contains the first of two videos that analyzes how the Multi-Administrative Domain uses Tandem Connection Monitoring to respond to service-affecting defects within the ODU signal passing through it.

Lesson 11 – Video 10 – TCM Multi-Administrative Domain Defect Analysis – Part ONE

This blog post contains a video covering the first part of the Multi-Administrative Domain Walk-Through when defects are occurring.

In particular, this video discusses how the Multi-Administrative Domain will respond to the presence of defects.

During this video, we are assuming that we are experiencing a service-affecting defect within the ODU signal (that passes through the Multi-Administrative Domain). However, in this case, we are assuming that the defect occurs outside of any of the administrative regions. As we analyze the Multi-Administrative Domain’s response to this defect, we will cover the following topics:

  • What exactly occurs within an ODU signal that experiences a service-affecting defect.
  • How do ODU-layer, ODUT-layer, and OTU-layer circuitry respond to such defects?
  • How does each Administrative Domain respond to the presence of a service-affect defect outside of the Service-Requesting (or any other Domain), using Tandem Connection Monitoring?
  • What does the Path Terminating Equipment (at the remote-terminal) do in response to this service-affecting defect?

I hope that the student will better understand Tandem Connection Monitoring as we go through this and the next video.

Check Out the Video Below.

Continue reading “OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring Multi-Administrative Domain Defect Analysis – Part ONE”

OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Thru – Part TWO

This post serves as Part TWO (and the Final Part) for the Multi-Administrative Domain Walk Through and Analysis for our study of Tandem Connection Monitoring.

Lesson 11 – Video 9 – TCM Multi-Administration Domain Walk Through – Part TWO

This blog post contains a video that covers the second (and final) part of the Multi-Administrative Domain Walk-Through.

In particular, this video covers the following topics:

  • Part TWO of our Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Through (using our knowledge of TCM-related atomic functions to analyze this network).

In particular, this post covers the following parts of the Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Through.

  • Initializing the Serving Operating Domain (Operator B) – TCM Level 3
  • Terminating the Serving Operating Domain (Operator B) – TCM Level 3
  • Initalizing the Serving Operating Domain (Operator C) – TCM Level 3
  • Initializing the Protect Domain – TCM Level 4
  • Terminating the Protect Domain – TCM Level 4
  • Terminating the Serving Operating Domain (Operator C) – TCM Level 3
  • Terminating the Leased Service Serving Operator Domain – TCM Level 2
  • Terminating the Service Requesting Domain – TCM Level 1

This video serves as Part TWO (and the Final Part) of our Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Through and Analysis.

Check Out the Video Below.

Continue reading “OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Thru – Part TWO”

OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring Controller and Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Thru – Part ONE

This blog post briefly introduces the Tandem Connection Monitoring Controller Atomic Function. This post also serves as Part ONE for the Multi-Administrative Domain Walk Through and Analysis.

Lesson 11 – Video 8 – TCM Controller and Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Through – Part ONE

This blog post contains a video that covers the first part of the Multi-Administrative Domain Walk-Through.

In particular, this video covers the following topics:

  • An Introduction to the TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring) Controller Atomic Function
  • An Overview of What We Have Covered thus far – In Lesson 11, and Where We’re Going
  • Introduction to Compound (Atomic Functions)
    • Definition/Introduction to the Source Compound Function
    • Definition/Introduction to the Sink Compound Function
  • Part ONE of our Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Through (using our knowledge of TCM-related atomic functions to analyze this network).

In particular, this post covers the following parts of the Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Through.

  • Initializing the Service Requesting Domain – TCM Level 1
  • How We Initialize the Leased Service Serving Operator Domain – TCM Level 2
  • Initializing the Serving Operating Domain (Operator A) – TCM Level 3
  • Terminating the Serving Operating Domain (Operator A) – TCM Level 3

This video serves as Part ONE of our Multi-Administration Domain Walk-Through and Analysis.

Check Out the Video Below

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OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring – Sink Atomic Functions – Video 5

This blog post includes a video that discusses both the ODUTm_TT_Sk (Non-Intrusive Monitoring) Function and the ODUT/ODU_A_Sk Atomic Function. This is the last blog post to describe and define the TCM-related Atomic Functions.

Lesson 11 – Video 7 – Tandem Connection Monitoring – ODUTm_TT_Sk and ODUT/ODU_A_Sk Atomic Functions

This blog post contains a video that covers the fifth part of the Sink Direction Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM) related Atomic Functions.

In particular, this video covers the following two atomic functions:

  • ODUTm_TT_Sk (Atomic Function for Non-Intrusive Monitoring – TCM Applications), and
  • ODUT/ODU_A_Sk

More specifically, this video covers the following aspects of each of these Atomic Functions.

  • ODUTm_TT_Sk Atomic Function
    • Applications in which we would use the ODUTm_TT_Sk Atomic Function (e.g., Non-Intrusive Monitoring for TCM Subnetworks)
    • A brief overview of this function’s capabilities and attributes
    • How this function differs from the ODUT_TT_Sk Atomic Function.
      • When the ODUT_TT_Sk Function is operating in the OPERATIONAL Mode
      • If the ODUT_TT_Sk Function is operating in the MONITOR Mode, and
      • When the ODUT_TT_Sk Function is operating in the TRANSPARENT Mode
  • ODUT/ODU_A_Sk Atomic Function
    • Where this function fits into the Tandem Connection Monitoring Network
    • The Architecture/Functionality of the ODUT/ODU_A_Sk Function
      • Operation in the various TCM Modes (e.g., OPERATIONAL and MONITOR/TRANSPARENT).
      • The Protection Port (for Automatic Protection Switching support).
      • The Removal Block – How this function terminates the “Selected TCMOH and APS/PCC field”.
      • Replacing the Normal ODU signal (carrying client data) with either the ODU-AIS or ODU-LCK Maintenance Signals.
      • Asserting CI_SSF and CI_SSD in response to upstream defect conditions.

This video completes our discussion/review of the TCM-related Atomic Functions.

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Continue reading “OTN – Lesson 11 – Tandem Connection Monitoring – Sink Atomic Functions – Video 5”