Defect – Definition

This post presents ITU-T G.806’s definition of a defect or defect condition.

Defect or Disaster

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Defect – Definition

ITU-T G.806 defines the word defect as follows:

Defect: The density of anomalies has reached a level where the ability to perform a required function has been interrupted.

We use defects as an input for performance monitoring, controlling consequent actions, and determining fault causes.

In other words, defects are bad.

If some piece of networking equipment is declaring a defect condition, it is saying it “cannot do its job properly” because of this condition.

Defects that We Cover in this Blog

We cover the following defects in this blog.

For OTN Applications

OTU Layer
  • dLOS-P – Loss of Signal – Path
  • dLOS-P[i] – Loss of Signal – Path, Electrical Lane, i
  • dLOFLANE[j] – Loss of Frame – of Logical Lane j
  • dLOR[j] – Loss of Recovery, Logical Lane j
  • dLOL – Loss of Lane Alignment
  • Excessive Skew (OTL3.4 and OTL4.4 Applications)
  • dLOF – Loss of Frame
  • dLOM – Loss of Multi-Frame
  • dAIS – (OTUk-) Alarm Indication Signal
  • dTIM – Trail Trace Identifier Mismatch
  • dBDI – Backward Defect Indicator
  • dDEG – Signal Degrade
  • dIAE – Input Alignment Error
  • dBIAE – Backward Input Alignment Error
ODU Layer
  • dAIS – (ODUk) Alarm Indication Signal
  • dLCK – Locked Status
  • dOCI – Open Connection Indication
  • dTIM – Trail Trace Identifier Mismatch
  • dBDI – Backward Defect Indicator
  • dDEG – Signal Degrade
Non-Multiplexed Applications
  • dLCS – Loss of Character Synchronization (100GBASE-R)
  • dPLM – Payload Type Mismatch
Multiplexed Applications
  • dLOOMFI – Loss of OMFI Synchronization
  • dLOFLOM[p] – Loss of Frame, Loss of Multi-Frame – ODUj Tributary Port p
  • dMSIM[p] – Multiplex Structure Identifier Mismatch – ODUj Tributary Port p
Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM)
  • TCMi-dAIS – TCM Level i, Alarm Indication Signal
  • TCMi-dLCK – TCM Level i, Locked Status
  • TCMi-dOCI – TCM Level i, Open Connection Indication
  • TCMi-dTIM – TCM Level i, Trail Trace Identifier Mismatch
  • TCMi-dBDI – TCM Level i, Backward Defect Indicator
  • TCMi-dDEG – TCM Level i, Signal Degrade
  • TCMi-dIAE – TCM Level i, Input Alignment Error
  • TCMi-dBIAE – TCM Level i, Backward Input Alignment Error
  • dLTC – Loss of Tandem Connection Monitoring

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Author: Darrell Smith

Darrell Smith has more than 30 years of experience as an Electrical Engineer. He has about 20 years of experience as an Applications Engineer and the remainder of his time was spent in Hardware Design and Product Marketing. He will now be sharing his wealth of knowledge on this blog.

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