OTN – Lesson 10 – Video 2N – The ODUk_TT_So and OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Functions

This post presents the 2nd of the 7 Videos that covers training on the Peformance Monitoring of the ODUk Layer (for Non-Multiplexed Applications). This post focuses on the ODUk_TT_So and OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Functions within the Source Direction ODU-Layer.

OTN – Lesson 10 – Video 2N – The ODUk_TT_So and OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Functions

This blog post contains a video that describes the following two Atomic Functions in detail.

  • The ODUk_TT_So Atomic Function, and
  • The OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Function.  

Continue reading “OTN – Lesson 10 – Video 2N – The ODUk_TT_So and OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Functions”

OTN – Lesson 9 – Video 1 – OTU Layer Source Direction – Part 1

This post presents the first of 11 Videos that covers training on Performance Monitoring at the OTU-Layer. This post focuses on the Source-Direction OTU-Layer Atomic Functions.

OTN – Lesson 9 – Video 1 – OTU Layer Source Direction Circuitry/Functionality – Part 1

This blog post contains a video that begins the discussion of the OTU-Layer Source Direction circuitry.

In particular, this video discusses the following Atomic Functions:

  • The OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Function, and
  • The OTUk_TT_So Atomic Function.

The Role of the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Function

In short, the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Function is responsible for taking an ODUk client signal and mapping it into an OTUk server signal.

As the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic function generate this OTUk server signal, it will insert default values for the OTUk Overhead fields, into its outbound OTU data-stream.

The Role of the OTUk_TT_So Function

The OTUk_TT_So Atomic Function will accept the OTU data-stream (from the upstream OTUk/ODUk_A_So Function) and will compute real (and correct) values for the OTU Overhead fields.

Continue reading “OTN – Lesson 9 – Video 1 – OTU Layer Source Direction – Part 1”

What is the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Function?

This post briefly describes the OTUk/ODUk_A_So (OTUk to ODUk Adaptation Source) Function. This function will take an ODUk signal and it will synchronously map it into an OTUk signal.


What is the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Function?

We formally call the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Atomic Function the OTUk to ODUk Adaptation Source Function.

Introduction

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function is any circuit that (1) accepts an ODUk signal and (2) adapts (or maps) it into an OTUk signal for transmission to the following Trail Termination Function.

NOTE:  If we are working with a Fully-Compliant OTUk frame, then the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will synchronously map each ODUk frame into the OTUk frame.

On the other hand, if we are working with a Functionally-Compliant OTUkV frame, this mapping might be asynchronous.

In this post, we will assume that we are working with a Fully-Compliant OTUk frame.

NOTE:  We discuss the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function in detail in Lesson 9, within THE BEST DARN OTN TRAINING PRESENTATION…PERIOD!!!

Figure 1 presents a simple illustration of the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function.

OTUk/ODUk_A_So Simple Block Diagram - ITU-T G.798 Symbol

Figure 1, Simple Illustration of the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function

As the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function converts an ODUk signal into an OTUk signal, it will encapsulate each ODUk frame into an OTUk frame by adding the OTUk Overhead to the ODUk structure.

Please note that the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will only insert default values for the SMOH (Section Monitoring Overhead) within the OTUk overhead.

Functional Block Diagram for the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Function

Figure 2 presents a Functional Block Diagram for the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function.

OTUk/ODUk_A_So Functional Block Diagram

Figure 2, Functional Block Diagram for the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function

Interfaces within the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Function

Figure 2 shows that this function consists of three different interfaces.

  • ODUk_CP – The ODUk Connection Point.  The ODUk_CP is the interface where the ODUk-client supplies ODUk characteristic information (CI) to the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function input.
  • OTUk_AP – The OTUk Access Point.  There is where the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function outputs OTUk data, clock, frame, and multi-frame signals (for the outbound OTUk data-stream) to downstream circuitry (towards the OTUk_TT_So function).
  • OTUk/ODUk_So_MP – The Function Management Point.  This interface permits the function user to exercise control of the activity within the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function.

Figure 2 shows that the ODUk-client function (connected to the ODUk_CP Interface – of the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function) will supply the following signals to this function.

  • CI_D – ODUk Data-Stream
  • CI_CK – ODUk Clock Signal
  • CI_FS – ODUk Frame Start Signal
  • CI_MFS – ODUk Multiframe Start Signal
  • CI_APS – ODUk APS Communication Channel

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So What Does This Function Do?

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will perform the following operations on these signals.

Optionally Generates the ODUk-LCK Maintenance Signal

The function allows the user to configure the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function to generate the ODUk-LCK maintenance signal upon command internally.

The user can implement this command by setting the MI_AdminState input pin (at the Management Port) into the LOCKED State.

Whenever the user sets the MI_AdminState input into the LOCKED State and commands the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function to generate the ODUk-LCK maintenance signal, the timing, framing, and multi-framing for this ODUk-LCK signal will be based on the CI_CK, CI_FS and CI_MFS inputs (at the ODUk_CP Interface).

NOTE:  In this case, the ODUk-LCK maintenance signal will replace the ODUk traffic carrying user/client data.

This function will, in turn, map this replacement signal into an OTUk data stream. 

Please see the post on the ODUk-LCK maintenance signal for more details about the ODUk-LCK maintenance signal.

Allows User to Insert APS (Automatic Protection Switching) Commands into the APS Channel (within the ODUk-PMOH).

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function permits the user to access the APS channel (within this ODUk signal) via some inputs (at both the OTUk/ODUk_A_So_MP and the ODUk_CP Interfaces).

More specifically, this function allows the user to enable or disable the APS Channel and configure this function to operate at a specific APS Level through the MI_APS_En and MI_APS_LVL inputs (via the OTUk/ODUk_A_So_MP Interface).

Additionally, this function permits the user to insert their own APS Commands into the APS/PCC Channel within the ODUk Overhead via the CI_APS input (at the ODUk_CP Interface).

NOTE:  Please see the relevant post on the APS/PCC Channel to learn more about the APS Channel.

Generates OTUk Clock, FS (Frame Start), and MFS (Multi-Frame Start) Signals via the OTUk_AP Interface

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will synthesize the clock (AI_CK), frame start (AI_FS), and multi-frame start (AI_MFS) signals for the outbound OTUk signal via the OTUk_AP Interface.

The OTSiG/OTUk_A_So or OTSi/OTUk_A_So function (downstream) will use these signals to generate and insert the FAS and MFAS fields into the correct locations within the outbound OTUk data stream.

Generates the IAE (Input Alignment Error) Indicator for the downstream OTUk_TT_So function

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will generate the IAE (Input Alignment Error) indicator anytime it detects a frame-slip within the incoming ODUk signal (e.g., CI_FS) via the ODUk_CP Interface.

In other words, if this function detects the CI_FS signal pulsing TRUE during an unexpected clock cycle (CI_CK), then this function will drive the AI_IAE output pin HIGH

Whenever the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function drives the AI_IAE output pin HIGH, it signals an Input Alignment Error Event.   The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will drive the AI_IAE output signal to the downstream OTUk_TT_So function.  

The downstream OTUk_TT_So function will accept and perform another process with this AI_IAE output signal.

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will keep the AI_IAE output pin HIGH until the upstream (ODUk-circuitry) starts to assert the  CI_FS input indicator during the correct (or expected) CI_CK period, once again.

Generate and Route the OTUk Data-Stream to downstream circuitry

This function will output a data stream via the AI_D output, which I will call a partial OTUk data stream

This data stream will not contain the FAS, MFAS, or the FEC fields. 

It will include the ODUk-portion of the OTUk frame and the default values for the various OTUk Overhead Fields (e.g., the Section Monitoring Overhead – SMOH).

We will then route this data stream to other circuitry (e.g., the OTUk_TT_So function) for further processing.

List of Input and Output Signals for the OTUk/ODUk_A_So Function

Table 1 presents a list and description for each OTUk/ODUk_A_So function input and output ports.

Table 1, List and Definition for each Input and Output Signal in the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function

Signal NameTypeDescription
ODUk_CP Interface
CI_DInputODUk Characteristic Information - Data Input:
The ODUk-client is expected to input the ODUk data via this input. This ODUk data will contain all portions of the ODUk frame.
CI_CKInputODUk Characteristic Information - Clock Input:
This clock signal will sample all data that the ODUk-client supplies to the CI_D, CI_FS, CI_MFS and CI_APS inputs.

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will also use this clock signal as its timing source.
CI_FSInputODUk Characteristic Information - Frame Start Input:
The ODUk-client equipment will drive this signal TRUE; coincident to whenever it is supplying the very first bit or byte (of a given OTUk frame) to the CI_D input.

The ODUk-client is expected to assert this signal once for each ODUk frame period.

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will also use this input signal to determine if it should declare the IAE condition, via the AI_IAE output pin.
CI_MFSInputODUk Characteristic Information - Multiframe Start Input:
The system-side equipment will drive this signal TRUE coincident to whenever it is supplying the very first bit or byte (of a given ODUk/OTUk Superframe) to the CI_D input.

The ODUk-client is expected to assert this signal once for each OTUk/ODUk superframe period, or once every 256 ODUk frame periods.
CI_APSInputODUk Characteristic Information - APS Channel Data:
The system-side equipment is expected to apply the APS Channel to this input.

The function user must set the MI_APS_En input to TRUE and must place a valid value (for APS Level) at the MI_APS_LVL input pins, or the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will ignore the data at this input.

The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will map this data into the APS/PCC channel within the ODUk data-stream.

Please see the blog post about the APS/PCC channel for more information.
OTUk_AP Interface
AI_DOutputOTUk Adapted Information - OTUk Data Output:
The OTUk/ODUk_A_So function will take all of the data (that the ODUk-client applies to both the CI_D and CI_APS input pin) and will combine this data together to form a bare-bones OTUk data-stream.

NOTE: This OTUk data will contain the following fields.
- Default OTUk SMOH data,
- The contents of the APS/PCC channel and
- The rest of the OTUk frame.

This OTUk data-stream will not include the FAS, MFAS or FEC fields. Additionally, the downstream OTUk_TT_So function will compute and generate the correct values for the OTUk-SMOH.
AI_CKOutputOTUk Adapted Information - Clock Output:
As the OTUk_AP Interface outputs data via the AI_D, AI_FS, AI_MFS and AI_IAE outputs; it will updata all of this data on one of the edges of this clock output signal.
AI_FSOutputOTUk Adapted Information - Frame Start Output:
The OTUk_AP Interface will pulse this output signal HIGH whenever the OTUk_AP Interface outputs the very first bit (or byte) of a new OTUk frame, via the AI_D output.

The OTUk_AP Interface will pulse this output HIGH once for each outbound OTUk frame.
AI_MFSOutputOTUk Adapted Information - Multiframe Start Output:
The OTUk_AP Interface will pulse this output signal HIGH whenever the OTUk_AP Interface outputs the very first bit (or byte) of a new OTUk superframe, via the AI_D output.

The OTUk_AP Interface will pulse this output HIGH once for each OTUk Superframe (or once each 256 OTUk frames).
AI_IAEOutputOTUk Adapted Information - Input Alignment Error Output:
The OTUk_AP Interface will drive this output signal HIGH whenever the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function detects a frame slip within the ODUk_CP Interface.

More specifically, if the OTUk/ODUk_A_So determines that the upstream equipment has pulses the CI_FS input at an unexpected CI_CK period, then this function will drive this output HIGH.

This function will keep this output signal HIGH until the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function starts to receive pulses at the CI_FS during the "expected" CI_CK periods again.

Once the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function starts to receive pulses at the CI_FS input (during the "expected" CI_CK period) then it will drive this output pin LOW.
OTUk/ODUk_A_So_MP Interface
MI_AdminStateInputManagement Interface - AdminState Input:
This input pin permits the user to configure the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function to operate in either the LOCKED State or the NORMAL state.

If the user configures this function to operate in the NORMAL state, then it will map NORMAL ODUk traffic (e.g., ODUk traffic that is carrying client-data) into an OTUk frame as it passes through this function.

Conversely, if the user configures this function to operate in the LOCKED state, then the function will generate and map the ODUk-LCK Maintenance signal into the outbound OTUk data-stream.
MI_APS_EnInputManagement Interface - APS Channel Enable Input:
This input pin permits the user to either enable or disable the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function to/from accessing the APS/PCC channel within the ODUk overhead.

Setting this input HIGH permits the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function to access (and send APS messages via) the APS/PCC channel.

Setting this input LOW prevents the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function from accessing (and sending APS messages) via the APS/PCC channel.
MI_APS_LVLInputManagement Interface - APS Level:
This input permits the user to specify the APS Level, that this OTUk/ODUk_A_So function can use when it accesses the APS/PCC channel.

NOTES:
1. This input is ignored if MI_APS_En = FALSE.
2. There are 8 possible valid inputs to this port.

Please see the blog post on the APS/PCC channel for more information about this topic.

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What is an Atomic Function for OTN?

This post briefly introduces the concept of the Atomic Functions that ITU-T G.798 uses to specify the Performance Requirements of OTN systems.


What is an Atomic Function for OTN Applications?

If you have read through many of the ITU standards, particularly those documents that discuss the declaration and clearance of defect conditions, you have come across Atomic Functions.

For OTN applications, ITU-T G.798 is the primary standard that defines and describes defect conditions.

If you want to be able to read through ITU-T G.798 and have any chance of understanding that standard, then you will need to understand what these atomic functions are.

I will tell you that you will have a tough time understanding ITU-T G.798 without understanding these atomic functions.

Therefore, to assist you with this, I will dedicate numerous blog postings to explain and define many of these atomic functions for you.

NOTE:  I also cover these Atomic Functions extensively in Lesson 8 within THE BEST DARN OTN TRAINING PRESENTATION…PERIOD!!!

OK, So What are these Atomic Functions?

You can think of these atomic functions as blocks of circuitry that do certain things, like pass traffic, compute and insert overhead fields, check for, and declare or clear defects, etc.

These atomic functions are theoretical electrical or optical circuits.  They have their own I/O, and ITU specifies each function’s functional architecture and behavior.

It is indeed possible that a Semiconductor Chip Vendor or System Manufacturer could make products that exactly match ITU’s descriptions for these atomic functions.  However, no Semiconductor Chip Vendor nor System Manufacturer does this.  Nor does ITU require this.

ITU has defined these Atomic Functions such that anyone can judiciously connect a number of them to create an Optical Network Product, such as an OTN Framer or Transceiver.

However, if you were to go onto Google and search for any (for example) OTUk_TT_Sk chips or systems on the marketplace, you will not find any.  But that’s fine.  ITU does not require that people designing and manufacturing OTN Equipment make chips with these same names nor have the same I/O as these Atomic Functions.

OK, So Why bother with these Atomic Functions?

The System Designer is not required to design a (for example) OTUk_TT_Sk function chip.  They are NOT required to develop chips with the same I/O (for Traffic Data, System Management, etc.).

However, if you were to design and build networking equipment that handles OTN traffic, you are required to perform the functions that ITU specified for these atomic functions.

For example, if you design a line card that receives an OTUk signal and performs the following functions on this signal.

  • Checks for defects and declare and clear them as appropriate, and
  • Monitors the OTUk signal for bit errors and
  • Converts this OTUk signal into an ODUk signal for further processing

Although you are NOT required to have OTUk_TT_Sk and OTUk/ODUk_A_Sk atomic function chips sitting on your line card, you are required to support all of the ITU functionality defined for those functional blocks.

Therefore, you must understand the following:

  1. Which atomic functions apply to your system (or chip) design, and
  2. What are the requirements associated with each of these applicable atomic functions?

If you understand both of these items, you fully understand the Performance Monitoring requirements for your OTN system or chip.

What type of Atomic Functions does ITU-T G.798 define?

ITU-T G.798 defines two basic types of Atomic Functions:

  • Adaptation Functions and
  • Trail Termination Functions

I will briefly describe each of these types of Atomic Functions below.

Adaptation Functions

Adaptation Functions are responsible for terminating a signal at a particular OTN or network layer and then converting that signal into another OTN or network layer.

For example, an Adaptation function that we discuss in another post is a function that converts an ODUk signal into an OTUk signal (e.g., the OTUk/ODUk_A_So function).

Whenever you read about atomic functions (in ITU-T G.798), you can also tell that you are dealing with an Adaptation atomic function if you see the upper-case letter A within its name.

For example, I have listed some Adaptation functions that we will discuss within this blog below.

  • OTSi/OTUk-a_A_So – The OTSi to OTUk Adaptation Source Function with FEC (for OTU1 and OTU2 Applications)
  • OTSi/OTUk-a_A_Sk – The OTSi to OTUk Adaptation Sink Function with FEC (for OTU1 and OTU2 Applications)
  • OTSiG/OTUk-a_A_So – The OTSiG to OTUk Adaptation Source Function with FEC (for OTU3 and OTU4 Applications)
  • OTSiG/OTUk-a_A_Sk – The OTSiG to OTUk Adaptation Source Function with FEC (for OTU3 and OTU4 Applications)
  • OTUk/ODUk_A_So – The OTUk to ODUk Adaptation Source Function
  • OTUk/ODUk_A_Sk – The OTUk to ODUk Adaptation Sink Function
  • ODUkP/ODUj-21_A_So – The ODUkP to ODUj Multiplexer Source Atomic Function
  • ODUkP/ODUj-21_A_Sk – The ODUkP to ODUj Multiplexer Sink Atomic Function

Another Way to Identify an Adaptation Function?

ITU in general (and indeed in ITU-T G.798) will identify the Adaptation Function with trapezoidal-shaped blocks, as shown below in Figure 1.

OTUk/ODUk_A_Sk Function - Adaptation Atomic Function

Figure 1, A Simple Illustration of an Adaptation Function (per ITU-T G.798)

Now that we’ve briefly introduced you to Adaptation Functions let’s move on to Trail Termination Functions.

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Trail-Termination Functions

Trail Termination functions are typically responsible for monitoring the quality of a signal as it travels from one reference point (where something called the Trail Termination Source function resides) to another reference point (where another thing is called the Trail Termination Sink function lies).

When you read about atomic functions (in ITU-T G.798), you can also tell that you are dealing with a Trail Termination atomic function if you see the upper-case letters TT within its name.

The Trail Termination functions allow us to declare/clear defects and flag/count bit errors.

I’ve listed some of the Atomic Trail-Termination Functions we will discuss in this blog below.

  • OTUk_TT_So – The OTUk Trail Termination Source Function
  • OTUk_TT_Sk – The OTUk Trail Termination Sink Function
  • ODUP_TT_So – The ODUk Trail Termination Source Function (Path)
  • ODUP_TT_Sk – The ODUk Trail Termination Sink Function (Path)
  • ODUT_TT_So – The ODUk Trail Termination Source Function (TCM)
  • ODUT_TT_Sk – The ODUk Trail Termination Sink Function (TCM)

Another way to Identify a Trail-Termination Function?

In general (and indeed in ITU-T G.798), ITU will identify Trail Termination Function with triangular-shaped blocks.  I show an example of a drawing with a Trail-Termination below in Figure 2.

OTUk_TT_Sk Function - Trail Trace Atomic Function

Figure 2, A Simple Illustration of a Trail Termination Function (per ITU-T G.798)

We will discuss these atomic functions in greater detail in other posts.

 

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